Nose bleeding, medically termed as epistaxis, refers to bleeding from the nose due to rupture in the blood vessels. It is common for the nose to bleed as there are lots of blood vessels located in this region. It usually happens due to dying or damage of nasal membranes. Any injury on the face can cause nasal bleeding. Sometimes the bleeding may be slight while at times it can be profuse. In cold climates nasal membranes may get dry and cracks in them may cause bleeding. Due to fluctuation of humidity and temperature there are higher chances of upper respiratory infection. People staying in these regions should take care to stop drying and cracking of the nasal membranes. Generally, people who take medicines like Warfarin that prevent blood clotting or any anti inflammatory medicine like aspirin might be more prone to nose bleeding. Infections, allergies, medicines that cause blood thinning, high blood pressure and nose picking are some of the reasons for nose bleeding.
All the above instances of nose bleeding are anterior nose bleeding beginning from the wall separating the nostrils. To prevent an anterior nose bleeding when you see blood coming out of one nostril, you have to stay calm at first. Agitation causes you to bleed more. If a child is bleeding, calm him or her and make the child sit quietly. The level of the head should be higher. The person who is bleeding should lean a bit in the front so that the blood does not accumulate at the back of the throat. A nasal decongestant is very helpful in these cases. You should not cover the inside of your nose with cloth or cotton. Instead you must hold the same position for 5 minutes and if this is not enough to stop the bleeding, repeat it for another 10 minutes. You must also pinch on the softer parts of the nose. Keeping an ice cube on the bridge of the nose also helps to prevent bleeding.
In order to prevent a nose bleeding from happening in the first place, you must keep your nose moist every day. Use a petroleum jelly like Vaseline or any antibiotic ointment on the lining of the nose two to three times a day. You must discourage the habit of nose picking in children. The scratch of a sharp fingernail is enough to cause nose bleeding as the area is very sensitive. Keep their nails short and also try to do away with this bad habit. A saline nasal spray must be used by those who experience dry nasal membranes. This spray keeps the area moist and helps to prevent cracking and bleeding. Smoking is another bad habit that dries out the nose and causes irritation. To prevent nose bleeding, quit smoking. People who have recently suffered from nose bleeding should not bend down too much to lift something which is very heavy. It may cause strain and further bleeding. The nose should be cleared of all blood clots too. In case the nose bleeds profusely even after you have tried everything, call a doctor immediately. The person should be rushed to the doctor in case the bleeding occurs from an injury or blow to the face.